What are dimensions of the small intestine? What are reasons to explain why the small intestine is Where does the process of digestion begin? Are nutrients absorbed from the large intestine? How do nutrients, absorbed by the small intestine, travel to the individual cells of the human Is the pH of the small intestine lower or higher than that of the stomach?
Why is the pH of the Why is the stomach such a muscular organ? It extends from the pharynx to the stomach after passing through an opening in the diaphragm.
Functions of the Stomach
The wall of the oesophagus is made up of inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of muscle that are supplied by the oesophageal nerve plexus. This nerve plexus surrounds the lower portion of the oesophagus. The oesophagus functions primarily as a transport medium between compartments. The stomach is a J shaped expanded bag, located just left of the midline between the oesophagus and small intestine. It is divided into four main regions and has two borders called the greater and lesser curvatures. The first section is the cardia which surrounds the cardial orifice where the oesophagus enters the stomach.
The fundus is the superior, dilated portion of the stomach that has contact with the left dome of the diaphragm. The body is the largest section between the fundus and the curved portion of the J.
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This is where most gastric glands are located and where most mixing of the food occurs. Finally the pylorus is the curved base of the stomach. Gastric contents are expelled into the proximal duodenum via the pyloric sphincter.
The inner surface of the stomach is contracted into numerous longitudinal folds called rugae. These allow the stomach to stretch and expand when food enters. The stomach can hold up to 1. The functions of the stomach include:. Most of these functions are achieved by the secretion of stomach juices by gastric glands in the body and fundus. Some cells are responsible for secreting acid and others secrete enzymes to break down proteins.
The small intestine is composed of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. It averages approximately 6m in length, extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the ileo-caecal valve separating the ileum from the caecum. The small intestine is compressed into numerous folds and occupies a large proportion of the abdominal cavity. The duodenum is the proximal C-shaped section that curves around the head of the pancreas.
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- What are the functions of the liver?;
- The stomach.
The duodenum serves a mixing function as it combines digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver with the contents expelled from the stomach. The start of the jejunum is marked by a sharp bend, the duodenojejunal flexure. It is in the jejunum where the majority of digestion and absorption occurs.
The final portion, the ileum, is the longest segment and empties into the caecum at the ileocaecal junction. The small intestine performs the majority of digestion and absorption of nutrients. Partly digested food from the stomach is further broken down by enzymes from the pancreas and bile salts from the liver and gallbladder.
Stomach - Wikipedia
These secretions enter the duodenum at the Ampulla of Vater. The lining of the small intestine is made up of numerous permanent folds called plicae circulares. Each plica has numerous villi folds of mucosa and each villus is covered by epithelium with projecting microvilli brush border. This increases the surface area for absorption by a factor of several hundred.
The mucosa of the small intestine contains several specialised cells. Some are responsible for absorption, whilst others secrete digestive enzymes and mucous to protect the intestinal lining from digestive actions.
The large intestine is horse-shoe shaped and extends around the small intestine like a frame. It consists of the appendix, caecum, ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon, and the rectum. It has a length of approximately 1. The caecum is the expanded pouch that receives material from the ileum and starts to compress food products into faecal material. Food then travels along the colon.
The wall of the colon is made up of several pouches haustra that are held under tension by three thick bands of muscle taenia coli. The rectum is the final 15cm of the large intestine.
It expands to hold faecal matter before it passes through the anorectal canal to the anus. Thick bands of muscle, known as sphincters, control the passage of faeces. The mucosa of the large intestine lacks villi seen in the small intestine. The mucosal surface is flat with several deep intestinal glands. Numerous goblet cells line the glands that secrete mucous to lubricate faecal matter as it solidifies.
The functions of the large intestine can be summarised as:. The liver is a large, reddish-brown organ situated in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. It is surrounded by a strong capsule and divided into four lobes namely the right, left, caudate and quadrate lobes. The liver has several important functions. It acts as a mechanical filter by filtering blood that travels from the intestinal system.
It detoxifies several metabolites including the breakdown of bilirubin and oestrogen. After the stomach has done its work, the highly acidic mixture of gastric juices and food known as chyme leaves the stomach, moves past the pyloric sphincter, and goes into the duodenum before entering the small intestine. Because the chemicals in the stomach work due to a subtle balance, many problems can arise with the stomach.
Picture of the Stomach
Some common conditions related to the stomach include:. You can't change the size of your stomach by eating less. You can, however, change how your stomach adjusts to hunger and feelings of fullness…. I followed Project Juice's six-day gut health challenge, which consisted of smoothies, tummy tonics, and fiber-rich recipes.
After that, I got my…. Your stomach is an elongated, pear-shaped pouch. It lies across your abdominal cavity to the left, below your diaphragm.
Your stomach can typically…. Do you feel an occasional or recurring pressure in your stomach? There are a number of conditions that could be triggering that feeling of pressure….